Text Box: First Nations Education and Emancipation 
Through the Four Seasons Curriculum
Text Box: Wandering Spirit Survival School:

Sharon Berg

M.Ed Thesis, York University (1998)




Wandering Spirit was the first Native Way School founded in Canada. It is also so much more than a school. Wandering Spirit is the English name of the Cree War Chief for Big Bearís band, Kapapamahchakwew. He is the great-great-grandfather of Pauline Shirt, who founded this Cultural Survival School with her husband, Vern Harper. It still exists as an Alternative School within the Toronto Board of Education, though its name and mandate have been adjusted to reflect First Nations School.


These pages will introduce you to Wandering Spirit through my Master in Education Thesis on the founding and mandate of the school through an abstract and some introductory excerpts. These pages also provide you with information about how you can access to full copies of this thesis.



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